Experience the joy of Velas' Kasav Utsav in 2024!
Maharashtra is blessed with a 720 km long coastline. Shared with Konkan, Thane, and Ratnagiri also the Sindhudurg districts. Many marine creatures come to visit. However, the exact count and type are unknown. As from what is believed there is not a detailed study available. In the year 2000-01, it was found that a species of turtle, Olive Ridley is a prominent visitor to the shores of Maharashtra for breeding purposes. Other species are the Green Turtle, Hawksbill, and Leatherback. A lot of the other information is already available online, like what do turtles eat, and what a turtle looks like. The difference between a turtle, a tortoise, and a terrapin.
Velas Turtle Festival 2024 from Pune - Please Click here
Why Velas Turtle Festival?
Velas is a small fishing village on the western coast of Maharashtra. About 220 km away from Mumbai, a little over a hundred houses on the coast of the Arabian Sea. It is that time of the year again - when a tiny grey head pokes out of the golden sand and takes a breath of the fresh salty air of the Arabian Sea. It is a culmination of a lengthy process, which started when, under the cover of darkness, its mother emerged out from the rolling waves to lay her heap of 100-120 eggs on the sandy beach. Oblivious to the world that awaits it outside its sandy cocoon, the tiny hatchling is soon followed by a hundred others, all crawling their way toward the brightest lights of the horizon- in this case, the sea. TreksandTrails, India invites you to this journey from the nest to the sea which draws oohs and aahs from tourists - each of whom is gathered on the shore to witness this miracle of Nature. The location is Velas, a remote village in Mandangad taluka in Ratnagiri district approx. a 6-hour drive from Mumbai.
Kindly Note about Velas Turtles Festival 2024
- Traveling by A/C Bus
- Hatchling sighting is not guaranteed.
- The maximum batch size is 30 travelers on a first come first basis.
- Pick up and Drop at centralized locations only.
- Kasav Mahotsav 2023 Dates all days of March and April
Turtle Festival Velas Cost:
- With Transport - Rs 3299/- per person (5 Years and above)
- Without Transport - Rs. 2499/- per person
Velas Turtle Festival Information
Traveling by A/C Bus Velas turtle festival from Mumbai
- Event Type: Tour
- Food Arrangement: Velas Homestay with Veg food already arranged
- Transport: Travel by the same private vehicle for the entire tour
- Height of Bankot fort: 500 feet
- Base Village: Velas Maharashtra
- Taluka: Mandangad
- District: Ratnagiri
- Region: Konkan
- Route from Mumbai: Mumbai - Panvel - Mahad - Mandangad - Velas
- Distance from Mumbai: 220 km approx.
- Total time required for climbing Bankot Fort: None
- Total distance for climbing: None
- Parking available: yes
- Harihareshwar Mandir Darshan
- Harihareshwar Parikrama if tides allow
Velas Turtle Festival 2024 from Pune - Please Click here
Itinerary for Velas Turtle Festival 2024
Day Zero - Friday Night
Meeting at Pritam Dhaba Dadar East 20:40 (Travelling by A/C Bus)
- Departure from Pritam Dhaba: 21:00
- Chembur Diamond garden pickup: 21.30
- Vashi below main bridge pickup at 22.15
- Pickup at Kalamboli near Mc Donald`s 23.00
Day One: Saturday
- 06:00 Early morning arrival at Velas.
- 06:15 Visit to Velas Beach for Turtle sighting.
- 08:30 Breakfast at Velas Homestay.
- 10:30 Visit to Bankot Fort.
- 13:00 Lunch & Rest.
- 17:00 Visit to the beach for turtle sightings.
- 20:00 Dinner - Veg / Nonveg (chicken) and enjoy Team Games.
Day Two: Sunday
- 06:00 Visit to Velas beach for turtle sighting. (Optional)
- 07:30 Early Breakfast.
- 08:30 Depart for Harihareshwar temple from Velas village.
- 10:00 We will cross the Bankot creek, Savitri River in a boat with the Bus from Veshvi Jungle Jetty to Bagmandala jetty
- 12:00 Lunch (By your own)
- 13:30 Departure for Mumbai from Harihareshwar temple
- 22:00 Approx. arrival at Dadar – Mumbai.
Please note: Velas turtle festival from Mumbai sells out quickly kindly book in advance
What is included in the tour
- Travel by AC Bus (with transport option)
- Accommodation on multi sharing basis in a typical Konkani homestay - Dormitory.
- Day 1: 1 veg breakfast, 1 Veg Lunch, 1 Veg / Nonveg (Chicken) Dinner
- Day 2: 1 Veg breakfast
- Sightseeing as per the schedule
- Expertise, guide charges and TreksandTrails, India administration charges if any.
- Ferryboat charges (with transport option)
- All entry tickets and permissions. Provision of primary first aid only.
What is NOT included in the tour
- Non-Veg Food
- Lunch on Day 2
- Dinner on Friday Night and Sunday not included.
- Jetty Cost on Day 2 for without transport option
- Any transportation (without transport option)
- Mineral water and any other item not mentioned in the inclusions list
- All kinds of Extra Meals / soft drinks ordered.
- Any kind of personal expenses (Camera fees, entry fees, etc.)
- Any kind of cost which is not mentioned in the cost includes above.
- All expenses incurred due to unforeseen and unavoidable circumstances like roadblocks, bad weather.
- Any medical / Emergency evacuations if required.
- Water Bottles (2-3 Litres)
- Torch with extra batteries
- Extra pair of clothes & towel
- Trekking shoes for trekking
- Comfortable footwear
- Personal basic medical kit (Containing an antiseptic, few bandages, personal medications if any, etc.)
- Mosquito repellent cream
- Sun cap and Sunscreen
- DRY bag for your garbage
- 2-3 bunch of papers (Optional)
- Identity proof
- 75% refund if notified via phone conversation 8 or more days prior to the event date.
- 50 % refund if notified via phone conversation 4 to 7 days prior to the event date.
- No refund if the cancellation requested is less than 3 days prior to the event date
- No show No Refund.
- Event Tickets cannot be transferred to another date against cancellation.
- Event Tickets cannot be transferred to another person against cancellation.
- If Trek gets canceled we will refund "Trek Amount" only.
Question Answer about Velas beach turtle festival 2024
About the Velas Kasav Mahotsav 2024
Velas Kasav Mahotsav 2024 is an annual event dedicated to conserving Olive Ridley turtles, one of the more endangered species. It is held at the beach of Velas in Ratnagiri, 220 kms from Mumbai. The Kasav Mahotsav 2023 was created to spread awareness of Olive Ridley Turtles, promote eco-tourism, and help raise money to protect and conserve these turtles. There are Rs 100 entry fees for the Velas Kasav Mahotsav 2023.
1. Can we get a separate room or family room at Velas Turtle Festival Homestay?
At the moment, we only do group events, and because there are so many people on weekends, Velas Village can only offer dormitory homestays. Velas Turtle Festival Homestay, Our homestays are dormitories with large halls. We have separate rooms available for men and women.
2. Where can I find olive ridley turtles on the Konkan coast?
Olive Ridley turtles can be found at many beaches along the Konkan coast, a few of which are mentioned here. Guhagar Beach, Harihar Beach, Velas Beach, Anjarle Beach, and Wayangani Beach, Vengurla Some of the best beaches on the Konkan coast are nearby: Diveghar Beach, Shirvardhan Beach, Harihareshwar Beach, Kelshi Beach, Anjarle Beach, Karde Beach, Harney Beach, and Ladheghar Beach. Due to our limited time on tour, we will be covering only Harihareshwar Beach and Velas Beach.
3. What kind of food is served at Velas Village Homestay Food?
We provide local cooked veg food at our homestay during the Velas Festival.
4. Are there toilets and bathing facilities?
There is a bathing facility, but there is no hot water.Toilets are eastern and western commodes. For any assistance or questions regarding the turtle festival Velas, kindly chat with us.
5. Velas Village mobile connectivity?
There is a range available. In a few spots near the village, Idea sim cards have good range. There is load shedding. Because of load shedding, there isn't always electricity in Velas Village, so bring a power bank.
6. What are the things to do there?
Some enjoyable activities in Velas Village during the Kasav Festival Bird Watching, Fireflies, Velas Village, Bankot Fort, taking part in the Turtle Festival at Velas Village, a nighttime stroll along the coast road, Relaxing by the beach and watching the sunrise and sunset
7. Velas Turtle Festival or Velas Kasav Jatra timing?
- Beginning at 6.30 a.m. at Velas Beach
- Velas Beach in the evening at 5.30 p.m.
Velas turtle festival booking sells out quickly. Kindly book in advance. For any assistance or questions, kindly chat with us.
8. Will the Harihareshwar Temple and Beach be visited?
Harihareshwar Temple and Harihareshwar Beach will be visited on Sunday.
9. What are the dates for the festival?
Velas Turtle Festival dates are released after locals handling conservation inform us of the approximate dates of baby turtle hatching.
10. Can we see the images of the Velas turtle festival for 2024?
We have added our latest tour images in the photo gallery available around the top right corner. Velas turtle festival celebration, Harihareshwar beach, Bankot fort and many more pictures are general in the gallery.
11. Do you offer a Shrivardhan beach visit on your Velas Sea Turtle tour?
Sorry, due to limited time availability, we cannot visit Shrivardhan beach during or Velas Turtle Tour.
12. Can we see the images of the Konkan Velas turtle festival for 2024?
We have added our latest tour images in the photo gallery available around the top right corner. Konkan Velas turtle festival photos, Harihareshwar beach, Bankot fort and many more pictures are general in the gallery.
13: Does Harihareshwar have a turtle conservation site?
Yes, Harihareshwar has also started a promising turtle festival. However, it has not become trendy yet. This is your chance to experience a once-in-a-lifetime olive ridley turtle festival at Harihareshwar, help with wildlife conservation, and support the locals with Agro tourism.
An uninhabited, virgin beach that still has a beautiful natural, laid back vibe. Harihareshwar is also a turtle conservation site meaning you'll be able to help save the world at the same time!
14. Is swimming allowed at Velas Beach?
Tourists visit Velas for beautiful beaches and some of the most diverse wildlife in Maharashtra. Not just turtles - you'll also find dolphins, fireflies, butterflies and crabs inhabiting our shores!
Swimming is not allowed on the calm sea beach. The pristine beaches invite tourists though the newly released baby turtles usually hang around the Velas beach lines, and there are chances of stepping on them. The strong sea currents make it one of the dangerous beaches for swimming.
15. Velas Turtle festival dates from Pune for April 2024?
Experience the best of Maharashtra; The Velas Turtle Festival 2024 from Pune is the perfect escape for those who want to enjoy the beauty of beach life, wildlife, heritage and more!
Vellas Turtle Festival 2024 dates from Pune are available on weekends of April. The trip starts Friday night and ends in Pune on Sunday night.
A breathtaking experience, With a spectacular coastline, where the deep blue Arabian Sea meets the golden sands of the Harihareshwar beach, this is one festival you don't want to miss.
Velas Turtle Festival from Pune is available; please click here.
16. How to complete Velas Turtle Festival booking?
Velas is a small coastal village in Konkan, attracting tourists for its stunning beaches, baby turtle conservation project and the beautiful Harihareshwar beach. If you have any questions, kindly chat with us. The cost includes Velas Turtle Festival entry fees of Rs 100 per head.
You can click on the book now button to register for the tour. For information regarding the Velas turtle festival contact number are 8828004949.
17. Can we book for Velas beach turtle festival 2024 dates in advance?
Yes, we accept booking in advance due to increased rush after covid19. Velas beach homestay has minimal capacity. They try to accommodate most tourists who visit the village as there is no Velas agar beach resort. Velas turtle festival tours dates are available for the 2024 season. Please chat with us for any questions.
18. How is the Velas beach weather?
Velas has a warm climate with average temperatures ranging from 30 to 40 degrees Celcius. The weather is humid and hot during the summer, February to April. Velas beach temperature at night is more relaxed. It's always breezy in this part of Konkan, making it great to walk on the beach or take long walks on the coastline.
19. Olive Ridley Turtle IUCN status?
According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, the Olive Ridley turtle is classified as Vulnerable.
Read the blogs about the Velas Turtle Festival Information
About Kasav Mahotsav
Kasav Mahotsav is a turtle festival held in different villages in Maharashtra. The festival is a month-long affair that usually falls in March, but the village starts receiving tourists as soon as the first nest hatches. Sahyadri Nisarga Mitra and Kasav Mitra Mandal organize the festival. The festival is a celebration of the Olive Ridley Turtles that come to the shores of Maharashtra for breeding purposes. The festival includes activities such as turtle hatching, release, question and answer sessions, screening documentaries, and cultural programs.
Treks and Trails, India invites you on this journey from the nest to the sea, which makes tourists ooh and aah as they gather on the beach to see this natural miracle.
Can you tell me about the Velas turtle festival location?
Olive Ridley Kasav Mahotsav is held annually at Velas Beach in Ratnagiri District. Nearby towns are Harihareshwar, Diveagar, Shrivardhan, Kelshi, Dapoli, Mandangad, Mahad, and Mangaon. The sea turtle festival is held from February to April, where you get to see the Turtle hatchlings being released at the Velas beach daily at 7 am and 6 pm.
Velas turtle festival Pune
Velas is a coastal village in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra, about 200 km from Pune. The Velas Turtle Festival season has been gaining national and international popularity in the ecotourism sector. We have regular weekend Velas Turtle Festival Pune Tours available, which include AC Bus travel, homestay, entry fees, Harihareshwar Mandir Darshan, Meals, and more. Pune to Velas beach distance is 200 kilometers it will take 6 to 8 hours to cover this distance.
When is the Velas turtle festival best time to visit
Velas beach turtle festival 2024 dates are available for March and April. The best time for the turtle festival is in these months. Velas turtle festival time for the release of hatchlings is at 7 am and 6 pm. We offer Homestay in Velas; kindly chat with us for a quote.
About Olive Ridley Turtle
The Olive Ridley Turtle, whose scientific name is Lepidochelys olivacea, is the world's smallest and most common sea turtle. They can be found living in the warm oceans of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian. They have a heart-shaped carapace top shell, five to nine pairs of scutes, and are olive in color. The Olive Ridley's size and shape differ from place to place, with the most notable animals being found in West Africa.
Even though Olive Ridley sea turtles are primarily aquatic, which means they live in open water, they are also known to live near shorelines. They can be found worldwide in the tropics of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Over 50% of the Olive Ridley sea turtle population on the globe and 90% of the Indian population of sea turtles assemble in Odisha, India, annually.
What is Olive Ridley sea turtle size?
The tiniest sea turtles are olive ridleys, which can weigh up to 100 pounds and have only about 2 feet long shells. The typical adult height might be between 22 and 30 inches (55 to 75 cm)
Maharashtra Olive Ridley sea turtle nesting sites
Around the Maharashtra coast, Olive Ridley turtles have sporadic nesting locations. In the southernmost part of the state, in the districts of Raigad, Ratnagiri, and Sindhudurg, nesting has been observed. The absence of people during the lockdown has been highly beneficial for Olive Ridley sea turtles hatching on the beaches of Maharashtra.
Odisha Olive Ridley sea turtle nesting sites
Olive Ridley sea turtles' most distinctive mass nesting behavior is found on Indian beaches near Gahirmatha beach in Odisha. Olive Ridley turtles' most prominent mass nesting location in India is on the Odisha beach of Gahirmatha1. In the Ganjam district of Odisha, they have also been observed nesting close to the mouth of the Rushikulya river.
Olive Ridley Turtle Odisha
One of the significant mass nesting areas for Olive Ridley sea turtles is along the coast of Odisha, India. The largest Olive Ridley sea turtle nesting area in the world is on Gahirmatha beach in the Kendrapara district. The five locations where these turtles lay their eggs that the government has identified are Devi, Gahirmatha, Rushikulya, Bahuda, and Astarang.
Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Facts
Olive Ridley sea turtles are the second-smallest and most abundant sea turtles in the world. They are found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, but also in the warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean. They get their name from the coloring of their heart-shaped shell, which starts gray but becomes olive green once they are adults.
Here are some fun facts about Olive Ridley sea turtles:
- The Olive Ridley turtle got its name after the color of its carapace.
- An Olive Ridley lays up to 50-200 eggs at one time.
- Olive Ridleys were found at depths of 500 feet in the ocean.
- Olive Ridley sleeps underwater for up to two hours before they reach the surface for air.
What is the Olive Ridley turtle scientific name?
The scientific name for the Olive Ridley sea turtle is Lepidochelys olivacea.
Olive Ridley sea turtle diet?
Olive Ridley sea turtles have a varied diet. They feed on fish and invertebrates, including molluscs, fish eggs, lobsters, crabs, shrimps, sea urchins, and gelatinous animals such as jellyfish and algae. They can dive up to 150 meters or 492 feet to look for food.
Importance of Olive Ridley turtles
Olive Ridley turtles are essential to the environment because they feed on seagrass, which helps other sea species stay safe and help the oceans' oxygen and nutrients as part of the ecosystem, crucial for life on Earth. They are currently the most abundant of all sea turtles.
Olive Ridley turtle nesting
Olive ridleys are known for their arribadas, or synchronized mass nesting, during which time tens of thousands of female ridleys come ashore to nest in a few days. They also exhibit solitary nesting behavior. The coast of Orissa in India is the largest mass nesting site for the Olive-ridley, followed by the beaches of Mexico and Costa Rica.
Are Olive Ridley turtles endangered?
The Endangered Species Act lists olive ridley turtles, which are widespread. In the Mexican Pacific Coast, only their breeding colony populations are considered endangered; all others are classified as threatened. The sea turtle is classified as fragile globally, and the federal government recognizes specific populations of olive ridleys as threatened and endangered.
What is the Olive Ridley sea turtle lifespan?
Like other sea turtles, Olive ridley turtles are likely long-lived. An olive ridley sea turtle's lifespan ranges from 30 to 50 years.
When is the Olive ridley turtle hatching season?
Olive Ridley Turtles head to the shore for the turtle nesting season between November and April. Each of them lays hundreds of eggs. The incubation takes about 40-50 days, and the hatchlings return to the sea.
How does the Olive Ridley turtle lay eggs?
The average Olive Ridley female turtle lays 120–150 eggs, and the young hatch after 45–60 days. Olive Ridley turtles spend hours creating tunnels in the sand using their front flippers. They make a cavity by sweeping sand out of the hole using their hind flippers. Many eggs are laid at once and later again covered in sand.
About project Olive Ridley turtle in India
Several projects in India aim to protect Olive Ridley turtles. The Ministry of Environment and Forests launched the Sea Turtle Conservation Project in November 1999 in collaboration with UNDP and the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, serving as the implementing agency. The Olive Ridley Project protects sea turtles and their habitats in the Indian Ocean by rescuing and rehabilitating injured sea turtles, researching and educating them, removing ghost gear from the ocean, and reducing and reusing ghost gear.
Contact number for a homestay near Velas Beach
In Velas, there are numerous homestay options. In addition, Sahyadri Nisarga Mitra established the " Velas Home Stay" program in 2006 as a component of the "Turtle Festival," where more than 19 households have signed up to accommodate nearly 3,000 visitors in the Velas Turtle Velas Festival.
Velas beach homestay offers an excellent opportunity to live with villagers' families. You are treated like family members by your host. They prepare excellent food and make sure your stay is comfortable.
Which is the best month for seeing Turtle hatching Velas?
March to April end is the best time to watch Olive ridley turtle hatchlings at Velas beach.
Can you tell me about Velas Maharashtra?
Velas is a coastal village in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra, India—Velas Maharashtra is between the Savitri and Bharaja rivers in the Konkan region. Velas is famous for its beaches and turtle festival, held by the locals of Velas and Sahyadri Nisarg Mitra, Chiplun.
How to register for the trip from Mumbai to Velas turtle festival 2024?
Treks and Trails offer trips from Mumbai to Velas for the Turtle Festival. The distance from Mumbai to Velas is approximately 220 kilometers. The route from Mumbai to Velas is Mumbai - Panvel - Mahad - Madangad - Velas. It takes eight hours to cover this distance.
Velas beach route changes every year due to constant repairs on the National and State highways and bad conditions of the roads and bridges. Velas turtle festival booking sells out quickly. Kindly book in advance for the Konkan Kasav Mahotsav.
Customer Velas turtle festival reviews
The forest department organizes the turtle festival at Velas, village Panchayat, and Kasav Mitra Mandal. Travelers can witness the initial voyage of young turtles hatching and making their way to the sea as part of a remarkable initiative to save Olive Ridley turtles. Velas is a charming little village that exudes serenity and simplicity. You may rest to the fullest extent because it is isolated from the crowd. A must-see if you enjoy the outdoors and photography. Velas turtle festival dates 2024 are available for all weekends in March and April. Velas beach Velas turtle festival homestay bookings are available for the 2024 season.
What are the Velas turtle festival 2024 dates from Pune
You can watch the release of turtle hatchlings daily at 7 am and 6 pm at Velas Beach from Pune in March and April. We have weekend tours available for Velas beach and Anjarle Beach from Pune.
Can we learn about the Velas turtle hatching process?
Yes, Kasav Mitra Mandal arranges a documentary movie with a QNA session for guests in the evening. You can learn about the whole process of Velas turtle hatching conservation process.
The sea turtle hatching process is the main reason for the Velas Turtle Festival. Visitors see the birth of young turtles, which emerge from their eggs and gently make their way into the water to begin their lives.
Tourists take care of the baby turtles that have just hatched by participating in the festival, supporting ecotourism, and providing income to local villagers who run homestays. Some tourists come to take pictures of the olive ridley turtle hatchlings making their way to the ocean, yet others come for the pure ecotourism experience the beach offers.
Velas turtle festival the best time to visit in 2024?
The best time to visit Velas for the Turtle Festival is from February to April. The festival is organized annually in March by the Sahyadri Nisarga Mitra NGO, Forest department, which joins hands with the village to create awareness and encourage eco-tourism. The best time to see Turtle hatching Velas is from February to April. You can see them on weekdays and weekends, depending on your luck.
Velas turtle festival 2024 dates from Mumbai
The Velas Turtle Festival 2024 dates are available for all weekends in March and April. The Sahyadri Nisarga Mitra (SNM) NGO collaborates with the village to host the Velas Turtle Festival every March. The festival's goal is to promote ecotourism and raise awareness about turtle conservation.
Velas turtle festival from Pune
The Velas Turtle Festival is held approximately 200 kilometers away from Pune on the beach of Velas in Ratnagiri. Velas is located in Ratnagiri. It is one of India's most celebrated environmental festivals, and attendees come from all over the world to participate in the event, including tourists, travelers, and volunteers.
Velas Turtle Festival from Pune festival is held annually to preserve turtle eggs and educate people about the significance of protecting turtles and their habitats. The natives of the pristine coastal village provide guests with a wide variety of exhilarating local activities and culinary experiences, thereby turning the festival into a multi-day event worthy of being remembered fondly. The festival is held at the beach, where turtle hatchlings are released. Pune to Velas distance is 200 kilometers; it will take eight hours to reach the village. There are Rs 100 entry fees for Velas Turtle Festival 2024.
About Anjarle Kasav Mahotsav
The Anjarle Kasav Mahotsav is a turtle festival that Sahyadri Nisarga Mitra and Kasav Mitra Mandal organize. Olive Ridley Turtles' eggs are protected at the nest site after turtles are laid on the beach by turtles. The festival is held at Anjarle beach, an untouched and charming village. Many homestays are available right where the beach ends. Visitors can take a boat ride to Suvarnadurg Fort, watch the fish auction at Harney Beach, and shop for local produce from the market.
When is the Turtle hatching season at Velas beach near Diveagar
From February to April, you can see the hatchlings at Velas - the turtle breeding village. Accommodation is available at the homestay at Velas beach.
Do you visit Bankot fort at the Turtle festival Velas beach?
Yes, we will visit the Bankot Fort, an ancient fort that can also be referred to as Himmatgad Fort or Fort Victoria. It is found in the village of Bankot, in the Ratnagiri district of the Indian state of Maharashtra. The fort's location on a prominent and commanding point makes it ideal for defending the trade route that runs along the Savitri River, a popular route during the medieval era and extends to Mahad.
The red laterite surrounding the square-shaped Bankot fort has been dug up to create the moats surrounding it. Stone carvings adorn the front door, oriented to face north and the main entrance. There are vestibules for gatekeepers located close to the entrance. Steps leading toward Nagarkhana can be found on the left, while an underground storey and a tunnel can be found on the right. A small entrance Darwaja can be found to the west of the fortifications, and it leads to a bastion located outside the walls.